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11. adverbs, idioms

Adverbs are words extending meaning of some corresponding verb or adjective. Adverbs are not conjugated.

  1. Adverbs regularly formed from adjectives in the neuter sg. nominative form. (e. g. ending -o or -e after consonants č, š, ž, j).

    example:

    mnogy
    ,-a,-o (numerous, adj.→ mnogo (much, many, plenty of, adv.)
    dobry,-a,-o (good, adj.→ dobro (good, adv.)
    maly,-a,-o (small, adj.→ malo (a few, adv.)
    novy,-a,-o (new, adj.→ novo (new, adv.)
    prěmy,-a,-o (straight, adj.→ prěmo (straight, adv.)
    povratny,-a,-o (backward, return, adj.→ povratno (backward, return, adv.)
    lěvy,-a,-o (left, adj.→ lěvo (left, adv.)
    desny,-a,-o (right, adj.→ desno (right, adv.)
    pravy,-a,-o (right, correct, adj.→ pravo (right, correct, adv.)
    krivy,-a,-o (false, awry, adj.→ krivo (false, awry, adv.)
    svěži,-a,-e (fresh, adj.→ svěže (fresh, adv.)


  2. Adjectives -sky, ... have adverb -sky.

    example:

    medžuslovjansky
    (Interslavic, adj.medžuslovjansky (Interslavic, adv.)
    anglijsky (English, adj.→ anglijski (English, adv.)


derived adverbs

Some adverbs are formed from fossilized proverbial structures of a noun in some case with optional preposition or pronoun. Such a structure is then written together as one word and behaves as one word. They are for example:

 vkupě  
 v kupě (L
 together  (originally: in a group)
 izjutra  iz jitra (G)
 tomorrow (originally: from the morning)
 gorě  gorě (L
 up, to the top (originally: a hill in locative)
 dolu  dolu (L)
 down, to the bottom (originally: a valley in locative)
 lětom      
 letom (I)  
 in/during a summer
 zimoj  zimoj (I)
 in/during a winter
 jutrom       jutrom (I)
 in/during a morning/sunrise
 včera  večera (G)
 yesterday (originally: an evening in genitive)
 doma  doma (G)
 at home (originally: a house in genitive)
 jutras  jutra sego (G)  today morning, this morning (originally: this morning in genitive)
 polednes  poledne sego (G)    
 today noon, this noon (originally: this noon in genitive)
 večeras  večera sego (G)  today evening, this evening (originally: this evening in genitive)
 dnes  dne sego (G)  today (originally: this day in genitive)
 nočis  noči sej (G)  tonight (originally: this night in genitive)


interrogative adverbs and their answers


 current location 
 way-through location 
 requested location 
 time  modus  numeral adverb
 
 kde? 
 where?  kudu? 
 where? 
 kamo?  where? 
 kogda   when? 
 kako?
 how? 
 koliko?   howmuch? 
 interrogative 
 sde
 here  sde  here  semo  here  segda  now  -  -  -  -  dmnstr. exactly
 tudu,tu  here  tudu,tu  here  tamo  there  togda  that time 
 tako  this way 
 toliko  so much
 demonstrative
 ovde  here  ovdě  here  ovamo 
 there  ovegda  that time  ovako  this way
 -  -  dmnstr. roughly 
 onde  here  ondě  here  onamo 
 there  onegda  that time  onako  this way
 -  -  dmnstr. distantly 
 inde  elsewhere  inude  elsewhere  inamo  elsewhere 
 inogda  another time
 inako  other way 
 -  -  alternatively
 nikde  no where 
 nikudu 
 no where 
 nikamo 
 no where
 nikogda 
 never  nikako 
 no way
 nikoliko 
 no  nowise, no way
 někde  anywhere
 někudu 
 anywhere  někamo 
 anywhere  někogda
 sometimes  někako 
 some way
 několiko 
 some  some, any
 vsekde 
 everywhere  vsekudu 
 everywhere  vsemo  everywhere  vsegda 
 always 
 vsekako  all way
 -  -  always

  1. Note in this table that there is a lot of symmetries between pronouns, numerals and adverbs made by the same prefixes (e.g. t-, in-, ni-, ně-, vs-). For details, see chapters about pronouns and numerals again.

  2. Adverbs kamo?, semo, tamo, ... can be combined with the prefix od- (from) in order to make adverb odkamo? (where from?), od tamo (from there), ...

gradation

Gradation of adverbs is very similar to the gradation of adjectives as well. Also it has 4 levels and two modes: direct and descriptive. The prefix is naj- (the same as of adjectives) and suffix is -ěje or -eje after č, š, ž. There are five irregular adverbs made from the same irregular adjectives in the comparative: bolše, lučše, unše, menše, gorše according to irregular adjectives.

example:
  1. silno = strong
  2. silněje = vyše silno = stronger, more strong
  3. najsilněje = najvyše silno = strongest, the most strong
  4. najsilno = mnogo silno = very strong

Natural Slavic languages have more complicated gradation of adverbs. Typically, it is a kind of omitting the penultimate syllables, for example:

daleko → dalěč-ěje → dal-ěčě-je → dalje.

Of course, You can use these shorter forms but be ready to use also the original full-long form for case of need to explain Your meaning, if Your partner does not understand.



idioms

Like virtually every human language, Neoslavonic has idioms as well. They were chosen with the aim of maximum similarity to spoken Slavic languages and acceptable level of simplicity. Please, learn these idioms:

 jest trěba D N/infinitive 
 needs to, it is required, ...  (whom, what)
 hoču D A/infinitive  I want (for D) to ...
 v redu
 in order
 i kako li že
 although (exactly: and how if that)
 drug druga
 each other (exactly: a friend of a friend)
 odnošeno  mutually (from the verb odnositi = relate to)
 na žalost
 unfortunately (exactly: at disfavor)
 na ščastje
 fortunately (exactly: at fortune)
 ako ... potom ... inako
 if ... then ... else


examples

Trěba jest pisati pismo. = It is required to write a letter.

Trěba jest Tebě pisati pismo. = It is required you to write a letter.

Hočemo Vam idti do Pragy. = We want you to go in Prague.

Dobro govoriš medžuslovjansky. = You speak Interslavic well.

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