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17. conjunctions, particles and interjections

conjuctions

A conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, phrases or clauses together. Conjunctions are noninflected and are used in exactly the same way as in English. Learn the most used Neoslavonic conjunctions from this table:

 conjunctive 
 i
 ni ...  ni ...     
 and
 neither ... nor ...
 disjunctive 
 ili
 i ili
 (either) or
 or (logically) 
 contradicted       
 ale, no
 but
 causal  bo, zatože
 da
 because
 in order to/that
 referential
 že
 that

Coupling clauses
can also be referenced by various reference, demonstrative and interrogative pronouns, numerals and adverbs (e.g. iže, ktory, koliko, kdě, ...) that connect the main concepts between the superordinate and the subordinate clause.


examples:

hlěb i vino = bread and wine
ni cěsarja ni kralja = neither any emperor nor any king
Hočete li piti pivo ili vino? = Do You want to drink beer or wine? (either beer or wine)
Dobro to mysliš, ale ne jest to možno. = You mean it well, but it is not possible.
Išel jesm kupovati do trgu, bo doma ne bylo nikako jadenje. = I went for shopping at the market, because there was nothing to eat at home.

Ne hoču auto, v ktorem jest slaby motor. = I do not want a car, in which the engine is weak. (pronoun with preposition v ktorem makes the conjunction)


particles

A particle is a special part of speech, which complements the word or clause by any additional information detail. We already learned the particle li, which changes the verb from the indicative mode to the interrogative mode, and the particles da, ne. Here is the table of the most used Neoslavonic particles:

 agreeing 
 da 
 ej
 yes
 yes, of course, eh, yea 
 disagreeing          
 ne  no, not
 querying  ako ..., potom ..., inako ... .     
 li 
 if ..., then ..., else ... .
 
(querying verbs
 emphasizing  ubo
 ale
 navyše    
 obače 
 thus, therefore, hence
 however
 moreover 
 despite of, yet, notwithstanding 

examples:

Ako izjutra bude dobro vreme, potom ne hoču ostati v domu.If the weather will be good tomorrow, then I do not want to stay at home.
Esperanto imaje prostu gramatiku. Obače važi, že to ne jest znajemy jezyk. = Esperanto has a simple grammar. Yet it is not a known language.
Ej, to jest pravda! = Oh yes/yea, it is true!

note:

Slavic languages often replace the querying particle ako (or similar) by a verb in querying mode (e.g. bude li dobro vreme, ...). Remember that this style has the same meaning as the standard ako ... .


interjections

An interjection or an exclamation is a noninflected word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker. They are for example oh! = oh!, uva! = lo!, see!, behold!

example:

Oh, to ne jest možno! = Oh, this is not possible!

Moreover, any direct speech closed in quotation marks « ... » is semantically considered as an interjection.

example:

«Dobro jesmo!» kazal tamtoj člověk. = "We are all right" said that man.
Žaba «plesk!» skočila do vody. = A frog "splash!" jumped into the water.


a joke


telefonat

Dědko telefonuje do doma, i telefon bere maly Ivanek.

Dědko: «Zdravej! Prošu, daj mi mamku!»

Ivanek slabym glasom odgovorivaje: «Ja ne mogu, mamka jest v kuhnji i mnogo plače.»

Dědko: «Dobro, daj mi otca!»

Ivanek iznovo slabo odgovorivaje: «Ja ne mogu, otec jest takože v kuhnji i mnogo kriči.»

Dědko: «Spokojno, daj mi babku!»

Ivanek: «Babku takože ne mogu.  Ona je s mamkoju i plače.»

Dědko nervozno: «Prošu Tebe, jest li u Vas ješče někto vzrastly?»

Ivanek: «Da, policija tu je.»

Dědko kriči do telefona: «Bože! I čto u Vas dělaje policija?»

Ivanek slabym glasom odgovorivaje: «Oni mně iskajut.»


dědko (m.) = a grandfather, granddad
Ivanek = little Ivan (personal name)
telefon (m.) = a phone
telefonovati, telefonuješ (v. impf.) = to call via phone
dom (m.) = a house
brati, bereš (v.) = to take
maly (adj.) = small
zdravej! (int.) = hi!
prositi, prosiš (v.) = to please
dati, daješ (v. pf.) = to give
dělati, dělaješ (v. pf.) = to do
mamka
(f.) = a mother, mummy
plakati, plačeš (v.) to cry
slaby (adj.) = weak
glas (m.) = a voice
odgovorivati, odgovorivaješ (v. impf.) = to answer
otec (m.) = a father
takože (adv.) = too, as well
iznovo (adv.) = again
kuhnja (f.) = a kitchen
mnogo (adv.) = a lot
kričati, kričiš (v. impf.) = to shout, to scream
spokojno (adv.) = well-content, cheerfully
nervozno (adv.) = nervously
babka (f.) = a grandmother, granny
ješče (adv.) = yet more
vzrastly (adj.) = adult
policija (f.) = police
Bog, Bože! (m.) = the God
iskati, iskaješ (v. impf.) = to search, to look for
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