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18. sentences with coordinate and subordinate clauses, writing commas

coordinate clauses

The clause has the coordinate relationship when it has the same information without any dependence to the other clause. Sentences with coordinate clauses are created easily by using conjunctions or articles between particular clauses. Here they are:

 conjunctive 
 i
 ni ...  ni ...     
 and
 neither ... nor ...
 disjunctive 
 ili
 i ili
 (either) or
 or (logically) 
 contradicted       
 ale, no
 but
 causal bo, zatože
 da
 because
 in order to/that
 implicative  ako ..., potom ..., inako ...     
 if ..., then ..., else ...

examples:

Včera je byla velika zima, i my jesmo ostali doma. = Yesterday was a big cold, and we stayed home.
Budete li letěti samoletom, ili hočete iti autom? = Will You fly by a plane, or You do You want to go by a car?
Jesmo se učili Esperanto, ale ne jest to znajemy jezyk. = We learned Esperanto, but it is not a known language.
Učihmo Esperanto, ale ne běše to znajemy jezyk. = We learned Esperanto, but it was not a known language.
Učimo se govoriti medžuslovjansky, bo hočemo razuměti Slověnom. = We learn to speak Interslavic, because we want to understand Slavic people.
Hočemo, da imate dobro vrěme! = We want you to have good weather!
Ako bude dobro vrěme, potom idemo do prirody. = If there will be the good weather, then we will go to the countryside/nature.


subordinate clauses

Two clauses have the subordinate relationship when one clause (e.g. subordinate) has dependent content on the other clause (e.g. superordinate). This means, that the subordinate clauses cannot stand alone without their control elements contained in superordinate clauses.

In Neoslavonic, the subordinate clause must begin by some referential grammatical element, which represents something from corresponding superordinate clause. This can be done by:
  1. referential conjunctions že = that. Here the entire subordinate clause refers to the verb from the superordinate clause.

  2. relative pronoun iže, jegože, jemuže, jejže, ... (see lesson 7. for details). Here the relative pronoun refers to some noun, numeral or pronoun from the superordinate clause.

  3. any interrogative pronoun, numeral or adverb (e.g. ktory, koliko, kogda, ...). Here the interrogative pronoun, numeral or adverb refers to some noun, numeral or adverb from the superordinate clause.

examples:

Govorim, že to ne jest dobre. = I say, that this is not good. (žegovorim)
Kto jest tamtoj člověk, ktory imaje zeleno auto? = Who is that man, who has a green car?  (ktoryčlověk)
Ne hoču auto, v ktorom jest slaby motor. = I do not want a car, in which the engine is weak. (ktoreauto)
Moj prijatelj, jegože mlada žena tamo ide, jest bolestny. = My friend, whose young wife is going there, is sick. (jegožeprijatelj)
Ne znaju točno, koliko imajemo ljudij. = I do not know, how many people we have. (kolikotočno)
Idemo do prirody, kogda je dobro vrěme. = We will go to the countryside/nature, when there is the good weather. (kogdado prirody)


writing commas

Neoslavonic is an auxiliary language, and therefore has no strict rules for writing commas between clauses. Frankly said, You can use the same rules that you know your native language. But there is one simple rule that would be good to follow:

Each clause having its verb and other elements (e.g. subject, object, adverbial parts, ...) should be separated from other clauses with a comma.


This rule is followed in all examples in this tutorial:

Idemo do prirody, kogda bude dobro vrěme.   - here we need one comma.
First clause = Idemo do prirody.
Second clause = Kogda bude dobro vrěme.

Moj prijatelj, jegože mlada žena tamo ide, jest bolestny.   - here we need two commas
First clause =
Moj prijatelj jest bolestny.
Second clause = Jegože mlada žena tamo ide.
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