21. transition words

This page is made from the texts of Robert Harris and the Writing Center, University of Wysconsin - Madison applied to the Interslavic language.

To improve your language skills you need to make sure, that your ideas stick together and that the gap between them is bridged smoothly. This is by using transition words and phrases that help bring two ideas together. Certain words help You to continue an idea, indicate a shift of though or contrast, or sum up a conclusion. See the following list of words to find those that will pull your thoughts together.


transition of logic

Transitions of logic consist of words or phrases that convey "logical intent": that is, they show the logical connection between two ideas. Since there are several possible logical connections (such as time, purpose, contrast), there are several categories of transitions of logic. The table below lists many of these transitions, arranged by category and listed as milder or stronger. (Note that there is some double listing, because of the different ways words can be used.) Some hints for use:

  • transitions become stronger when they are the first word in a sentence, milder when they are moved a few words into the sentence
  • keep this list handy while you write, until the words come automatically
This matter has been already discussed in lesson 18. - sentences with coordinate and subordinate clauses. Moreover, you need to remember words from the table in lesson 11. - adverbs and idioms.

Here you can see the most used transition words and phrases. Before using a particular transitional word from this table, be sure you understand its exact meaning and usage completely and try to translate all words which this glue is made from.

 addition 
 and  i
   or  ili
   ni ... ni ...
 neither ... nor ... 
  
 moreover, in addition 
 navyše 
   further, furthermore, even more 
 ješče (adv.)
   also, too
 takože
   besides  kromě (adv.)
   again  iznovo (adv.)
   first, in the first place
 izprva, v prvyh
   second, secondly
 v vtoryh
   third
 v tretjih
   finally  nakonec (adv.)
   next  dalje (adv.)
   last  poslědno (adv.)
 time  while, when
 kogda (adv.)
   after, afterwards
 potom (adv.), poslje (prep. G)
   during  v tečenji ... G
   next
 dalje (adv.)
   immediately  sejčasno (adv.), neposrědno (adv.
   now, this time
 sejčas (adv.), nyně (adv.)
   later  pozdněje (adv.)
   earlier  raněje (adv.)
   soon  skoro (adv.)
   sometimes  několikokrat (adv.)
   following  slědujuč (adv.)
   never  nikogda (adv.)
   always  vsegda (adv.)
   whenever  někogda (adv.)
   once  jedin raz (adv.)
   simultaneously  jednočasno (adv.) s ... I
   subsequently  postupno (adv.) od ... G
 place  here  tu, tudu, tamo (adv.)
   beyond  za (prep. G)
   wherever
 někdě, někamo (adv.)
   neighboring on
 slěd (prep. G), sosědno (adv.) s ... I
   nearby  bliz (prep. G)
   opposite to
 protiv (prep. D)
   above  nad (prep. A,I)
   below  pod (prep. A,I)
 exemplification 
 to illustrate, to demostrate
 ukazajuč (adv.) ... A
   for instance, for example
 napriměr (adv.)
   specifically  specifično (adv.ot ... G
   e.g.  napr.
 comparison  in the same way
 rovno s ... I, rovno kako ... N
   in like manner, likewise
 podobno ot ... G
   similarly  podobno (adv.)
 contrast  but  ale, no
   however  jedinako, medžutym
   on the contrary
 na razliku od ... G
   on the other hand, otherwise
 iz drugoj strany ... G
   despite of, yet, notwithstanding
 obače
   vice versa, backwards
 povratno (adv.) od ... G
 clarification  that is to say
 tako rěčeno
   i.e., that is
 to jest
   in other words, to rephrase it
 drugymi slovami
   to clarify, to explain
 na objasněnje ... G
   thus, therefore, hence  ubo
 cause  because  zatože
   since  od (prep. G)
   on account of
 radi (prep. G)
   let us assume that
 prědpokladajmo, že ... N
   for reason
 po pričině ... G
 effect  thus, therefore, hence  ubo
   consequently  slěd (prep. G)
 vsegda (adv.)
 možno (adv.)
   accordingly  rovno s ... I
   as a result
 v rezultatu ... G
 purpose  in order that
 da, da by
   for this purpose
 v smyslu ... G
 qualification  almost  bliz (prep. G), nemalo (adv.)
   never  nikogda (adv.)
   always
   maybe, perhaps

   probably  pravděpodobno (adv.)
   frequently  često (adv.), frekventirano (adv.) 
   although  hotj (adv.)
 intensification  indeed, sure
 ej
   of course
 jasno (adv.)
   without doubt, undoubtedly
 bezsumno (adv.)
   yes
 da
   by all means
 v vsih značenijah ... G
   certainly  istino (adv.)
 jasno (adv.)
 očevidno (adv.)
 concession  to be sure
 uvěrjeno (adv.)
   it is true
 pravda jest, že ...
   of course

   obviously
 summary  to sum up, in summary, together 
 vkupě (adv.)
   in short, in brief
 kratko (adv.)
  to dissolve
 na razrěšenje ... G
 conclusion  to conclude
 na zaključenje ... G
   finally  nakonec (adv.)


transitions of thought

Transitions of thought consist of words that help maintain the continuity of thought from one sentence or paragraph to the next. Transitions of thought are produced by the following techniques:


pronouns

Follow a noun with a personal pronoun in order to continue the same subject and a possessive pronoun in order to move to something related to the original subject. See lesson 7. for details.


Fido spi. On jest dobry pes. Jego dom jest pod jablonjeju.
Fido is asleep. He is a good dog. His house is under the apple tree.

Personal pronouns are ja, ty, on, ona, ono, my, vy, oni.
Possessive pronouns are moj, tvoj, naš, vaš and genitives made from on, ona, ono, onijego, jej, jego, jih.

keyword repetition

Repeat the word around which the discussion is focusing. 

Praga imaje mnogo istoričnyh pamětnikov. Tute pamětniky sut stare domy, mosty, theatra i hramy. Najstarši pražsky pamětnik jest iz romanskoj ery.
Prague has a lot of historical monuments. These monuments are old houses, bridges, teaters and churches. The oldest monument is from the Romanesque period.


synonyms

A synonym is a word that means nearly the same as another word. This is very important for your communication in Neoslavonic. Using synonyms will help you convince that your partners really understand what you are saying.

Vaše auto jest lěpo. Ale myslim, že taky voz je mnogo skupy.
Your car is very nice. But I think, that such kind of vehicle is expensive.


demonstrative pronouns

Use demonstrative pronouns in order to refer something already existed in the previous clause. Demonstrative pronouns are toj, ta, to and their derivatives tutoj, tamtoj, ... . See lesson 3. for details.

Moj brat imaje veliky dom. Kako stary jest toj dom?
My brother has a big house. How old is this house?


This page is assembled from the text of Robert Harris and the Writing Center, University of Wysconsin - Madison applied to the Neoslavonic language.
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